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It has given us the possibility to buy often new clothes for cheap, but it has also influenced the rest of the fashion brands, forcing them to adapt to keep up with the new industry speed. More recently, a new trend has taken-over the industry: online shopping and free-returns. The possibility of buying lots of clothes and return them without hassle or additional cost has been widely adopted by consumers.

It is difficult to evaluate the environmental cost of returning clothes, but we can deduce the cost is significant. In the USA, transportation overtook power plants as the main producer of carbon dioxide emissions. A quarter of this footprint comes from trucks doing last-mile deliveries, while before they just needed to deliver to one main location a mall, shopping center, etc. But things are changing. The incident of Rana Plaza factory collapse, which killed 1, people and injured many more in , was a pivotal moment for the fashion industry, sparkling a social movement encouraging millions of people to ask brands whomademyclothes and demand greater transparency in the fashion supply chain.

Transparency is requested both for the human cost and the sustainable footprint of the items we buy. Google searches for the term "sustainable fashion brands" increased by 25 percent from to Socially-conscious shoppers are choosing to buy from independent and sustainable brands they find online or through dedicated platforms like Etsy. Peer-to-peer clothing rental platforms , such as Rent the Runway, Village Luxe, and Designerex, have emerged and strive.

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This trend is also influencing the luxury market : in there was a rise of the luxury rental and resale market. Resale platforms such as The Real Real , an online platform for luxury consignment in the USA, allow consumers to consume less by reusing products while being able to renew their wardrobe. Nevertheless, waste remains a big problem.

Our current consumption model generates one garbage truck of textiles every second, according to the Ellen McArthur Foundation. While the Copenhagen Fashion Summit found that fashion is responsible for 92 million tons of solid waste dumped in landfills each year. But the future is not all gloom, brands are transforming their value chains and governments are setting up funds in order to push for a clean and circular fashion industry.

Another problem in the industry is connected to the materials we use to make the garments:. Polyester is one of the most popular materials used to make our clothing. In the past 20 years, demand for synthetic materials has grown faster than demand for organic ones such as cotton, wool, linen and other fibers. The trend is not slowing down: by synthetics are expected to account for 75 percent of global apparel fiber production.

Price is the main reason behind the use of synthetics: brands need to use materials that have a natural feeling for a price consumers are ready to spend. A polyester and cotton blend is cheaper than cotton and most of us find the feeling very similar to organic fibers. The problem? When polyester clothes are washed, they shed microfibers , which are so tiny they pass through sewage and wastewater treatment plants, ending up in water streams and oceans. These materials enter the food value chain endangering aquatic life, while their full impact on humans is not well determined yet. Solutions to the synthetic fabrics polluting-microfibers are being explored.

Introduction: "Its Time TO Be Bold" Poem Part 1

Another option in order to be more sustainable, is to reduce the use of virgin resources and replace them with recycled ones. Today, international organisations need more than ever the capacity to lead collective action and offer principled yet pragmatic bargains. One thing we learn from history is that abstract generic commitments by states in the refugee regime rarely lead to significant outcomes especially if they are non-binding. The litmus test for me will be in a three-to-five year period after the compacts, what has actually changed on the ground?

Will we see durable solutions? As for the GCM, we need a degree of perspective. It is still early days in the creation of a system of global migration governance. Although the GCM mainly lays out principles, from which states will be able to pick and choose. But it represents an important first step, and places migration squarely on the agenda of the UN system. The organisation has chosen a cautious strategy, deliberately choosing to keep certain issues off the table.

Many UNHCR staff understandably feel under threat and can see the politics is not auspicious for refugee protection. But there will be major strategic challenges to come. I think the world has fundamentally changed, in terms of the distribution of power, the impact of structural economic change and automation, and the rise of populist nationalism. UNHCR will need to continue to adapt to the changing reality, especially through building its capacity for political leadership in a constrained global context.

In relation to mixed migration the debate is often stretched between principled and pragmatic positions.

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How do we avoid the divide becoming greater and the refugee regime becoming increasingly irrelevant to some governments? In many ways, I am an idealist. I believe in the cause of refugee protection, I believe in human rights and I recognise the benefits of immigration but if those principles are to be meaningful in the contemporary world we have to be pragmatic.

Political changes in Europe, North America, Australia and elsewhere means the rich world is scapegoating immigration. There is a backlash created by populist nationalism. We obviously must not pander to xenophobia.

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We should correct the false claims of the populists. We should push back against the anti-immigration tide. But we also need to ensure that the principles that we value are consistent with democracy, that they can be supported by electorates, and that we take people with us. Otherwise we risk making it easy for extremist politicians to criticise liberal international values, and drive a wedge between those ideals and the perspective of the median voter.

So we need to find ways to reconcile liberal internationalism with contemporary democracy. There is sometimes a public perception that the global number of refugees and migrants is too great and a fear of the impact of accepting migrants and refugees. Can you comment on these perceptions and fears? In terms of numbers, 25 million refugees is only 0. The challenge is more geographical concentration: 85 percent are in low and middle income countries, and 60 percent are in just 10 host countries.

International migration levels, meanwhile, have remained broadly stable as a proportion of the global population since the s, albeit at numbers that have gone from around 70 million to million or so. I think that in Europe and North America the reason why people fear social and cultural change is because of underlying structural changes.

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What we need to do collectively is to build a sustainable migration framework with policies that work for migrants, receiving countries and transit countries. Politically, we see policies and the electorate in numerous countries moving towards anti-migrant populism. How do you maintain your optimism in the current environment?

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In the current world, one of the big challenges is reconciling democracy with globalisation.